An area or a facility used exclusively for the storage of chemicals such as petroleum is referred to as a refinery tank farm. All the tanks and equipment in this area are included in refinery tank farm management. Before sending it over to end consumers or retail facilities, liquid petrochemicals are stored in the refinery’s tank farm. While producing or handling acid of varying concentrations and qualities, tank farms are commonly used.
Proper corrosion and fire protection are necessary for refinery tank farms as they get affected by them very easily. A refinery tank farm is also known as an oil depot, installation, or oil terminal in the petroleum industry (Corrosionpedia, no date).
Challenges faced by tank farm operators
- Product Degradation
- Hydrocarbon Vapor Releases
- Unscheduled Downtime
- Poor Communication
- Underutilized Tank Space
- Hydrocarbon Leaks
- Manual Errors (Emerson Process Management, 2014)
Refinery tank farms management solutions
- Corrosion monitoring
- Combustible gas sensors, toxic gas sensors, and optical flame detectors are used for fire and gas detection.
- Flame arrestors and detonation arrestors are used for flame and detonation prevention.
- Gas and vapor flow monitoring is covered by differential pressure flowmeters, multivariable flowmeters, and micromotion Coriolis flowmeters.
- Protection against overfill will be done using vibrating fork liquid level switches, tank gauging radar level gauges, actuators, digital valve controllers, digital automation systems, valves, etc.
- Emergency pressure or vacuum relief vents, pressure, acoustic indicators transmitters, and vacuum relief valves are used to control vacuum or overpressure in tank farms.
- Analytical conductivity transmitters sensors, analytical pH/redox transmitters sensors, and transmitters with sensors are used for leak detection and pH monitoring of tank farms.
- Steam flow monitoring/heating and cooling are done using vortex flowmeters, differential pressure flowmeters, and fisher valves.
- Fisher vapor recovery regulators, fisher tank blanketing regulators, and climate technologies vapor recovery units are used for tank blanketing and vapor recovery.
- The tank gauging system uses water-level sensors, tank gauging temperature, tank gauging temperature transmitters, tank gauging level gauges transmitters, and pressure transmitters.
- Vibrating fork liquid level switches, wireless position monitors, Fisher valves, valves, and controls are used for water drain and valve monitoring.
- Process/Inventory monitoring (Emerson Process Management, 2014)
Refinery tank farm operations optimization
There is a need to have precise measurements of various types of liquids to optimize tank farm operations. Also, an increase in tank utilization and logistics accountability should be made (Dorf ketal, no date).
Running a crude tank farm is a complex challenge. Water and sludge removal should be maximized by refiners to improve energy efficiency within their facilities.
Dewatering and solid-settling formulations are required for the below-mentioned reasons:
- Help reduce sludge formation by felicitating the settling of water and solids
- Minimize desalter upsets
- Improve the refinery’s energy efficiency
To help recover valuable oil from the bottom of the tank, and which also helps in reducing the time needed for cleaning, tank cleaning additives are available. To clean crude and other hydrocarbon storage tanks specialized manpower and equipment are needed.
Software solutions available for operations
Cost–effective software solutions, when implemented in an integrated fashion, provide various benefits for tank farm operators. Tank farm operators have greater control over the fuel resources and storage facility.
Also, huge savings are attained at the cost of operation in a seamless fashion, and it interfaces with fuel accounting/other systems (Logicraf Corporation, no date).
They offer the following functions for refinery tank farms:
- Product movements are recorded.
- For each tank, it records its fuel inventory data, using either:
- Stick reading of Manual data entry. (Strapping charts are incorporated with the software).
- Recording tank level readings, a palmtop computer is used.
- An electronic tank gauging system.
- Computes tank inventories.
- Multiple tank groups and fuel types are managed.
- Fuel receipts via pipeline, truck, barge, etc. are recorded.
- Tank farm status visual graphic depiction is provided.
- Activation and deactivation of individual tanks, racks, or the entire tank farm can be performed.
- Authorized drivers, customers, and the tanker trucks list are maintained.
- Running inventories of tanks associated with racks are also maintained.
- Movement tickets are recorded and generated.
- A variety of reports and export data format is generated from the fuel accounting system
Tank farms management through a mobile app
Tank farm operators who wish to have quick access to terminal information can easily use an app through their iPhone or iPad. The app provides real–time information regarding one or even multiple terminals via web service connections (Implico, no date).
The operator may access information on the below points with the help of the app:
- Tank farm and tank levels
- Country, terminal, and customer information
- Product volume and movement details
- All means of transport units (truck/ship/railcar/pipeline) arrival and departure information.
- Corrosionpedia. (no date). Tank Farm, https://www.corrosionpedia.com/definition/1567/tank-farm, Accessed on November 26, 2019.
- Dorf ketal. (no date). Improving Crude Tank Farm Management, https://www.dorfketal.com/industry-solutions/refining/crude-tank-farm, Accessed on November 26, 2019.
- Emerson Process Management. (2014). Tanks Management Solutions, https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/read-brochure-en-us-192714.pdf, Accessed on November 26, 2019.
- Implico. (no date). Tank Farm Management, https://www.implico.com/opentas-oil-tank-farm-management-app, Accessed on November 26, 2019.
- Logicraf Corporation. (no date). Tankman, http://www.logicraft.com/products/tank_farm_information_system.pdf, Accessed on November 26, 2019.
- Xprt Energy. (no date). https://www.energy-xprt.com/software/implico-opentas-version-tfm-tank-farm-management-380452, Accessed on November 27, 2019.